Baqi, Abdul Qayoum Brig Gen. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. Furqani, Alhaj Makhdum Mohebullah.
Chapter 4 Determinants of health
It also brought about a general opinion among speakers of Low Saxon that having the slightest accent, in Dutch, would reduce job opportunities and social status.
Many of them were mainly interested in preserving rather than promoting the language. The prevailing tone was one of melancholy and nostalgia. Their focus was often on preserving cultural traits considered typical to speakers of the language, such as rural life and traditional practices, crafts and costumes.
That merely confirmed many of the existing stereotypes about speakers of the language. Another tone was rather literary in nature. Though well-intended, it caused even more estrangement with younger generations. At the same time, knowledge of and appreciation for related varieties was poor, which stifled cooperation between most of the dialect preservation groups. That resulted in little co-operation and no nationwide coordination. Other attempts to unite the different dialect circles were met with cynicism.
The conception prevailed that the dialects were too different to unite. In , the rock 'n' roll band Normaal boldly shook all perceptions of Low Saxon and its speakers. Until then, Low Saxon was mostly restricted to traditional folklore music.
Normaal openly denounced all Dutch disdain, praised farmers and local farm life and boldly used Achterhooks Low Saxon, voicing the opinion and feelings of many Dutchmen of non-Dutch-speaking origin.
Their hit song "Oerend Hard", a song about two bikers who lose their lives in an accident, took the charts by storm, and it is now regarded a true evergreen of Dutch music.
They inspired many other young rock 'n' roll artists to sing in Low Saxon, who now form a subgenre of their own in the Dutch music industry, which is gradually becoming aware of the genres commercial potential. Dutch provinces now receive minor funds for preserving and promoting the use of Low Saxon. A general rise in regional pride and appreciation for the Low Saxon identity made the earlier openly disdainful attitude towards Low Saxon seem to have subsided somewhat.
Low Saxon is increasingly being used in popular culture, marketing, and local politics. The Tweants municipality of Rijssen-Holten , for example, has officially adopted a bilingual status for their town hall desks, and customers may opt for Dutch or Low Saxon help. An increasing number of local political parties have used Low Saxon in their electoral campaigns.
In , a Facebook page called "Tukkers be like" gained more than 18, followers within a week. The page uses Twents cultural concepts and expressions in Twents. The idea of the page was based on the US Internet meme "Bitches be like", which gained enormous popularity in , and inspired many to create their own versions.
The meme presents an image of a certain situation, to which a certain group would respond in a typical way. Dutch Low Saxon has long been stigmatised and removed from schools. People of older generations may relate numerous accounts of their childhood in which contemporaries were afraid to go to school for fear of being reprimanded, or purposely ignored, for not speaking Dutch. The similarities between the languages made Low Saxon be regarded a dialect of Dutch, and shifting from Low Saxon to Dutch would be relatively easy.
Instead of adapting the school curriculum and guiding the children into learning Dutch as a second language and embracing the potential of the Low Saxon language, non-Dutch speaking parents were advised to speak Dutch with their children instead to increase their chances of success on the job market. The result was indeed a string of Dutch dialects with Low Saxon features, which were also again looked down upon.
In , Low Saxon is still not a part of the Dutch school curriculum. It is neither a subject nor a mode of communication. That causes a general lack of knowledge about, and appreciation for the language. Its possible role as a language of trade between the Netherlands and Germany is often dismissed, but recent study indicates it may be a useful addition in international trade communications. As of , language enthusiasts attempt to start up courses for the language and culture, especially in the Tweante region.
They are mostly studies aimed at the elderly but still prove to be very popular. There still is no professional attempt to promote the language into the school curriculum. Most varieties belong to the West Low Saxon group. Grunnegs is so different from the rest of the Dutch Low Saxon varieties that it may be treated separately. Tweants and Achterhooks belong to the Westphalian group of dialects. A lot of the dialects have been affected by the Hollandic expansion of the seventeenth century. All of them are lexically dependent on Dutch rather than German for neologisms.
When written down, they use a Dutch-based orthography. The plural is -en rather than - e t , as is found in West-Veluws and Urkers and clearly from Dutch influence since a unified plural in - e t for verbs is common in Low Saxon. The dialects have wiej warken instead of wiej warkt for "we work".
The feature is, surprisingly, also found in Stellingwarfs and Grunnegs. The trait is believed to have Frisian rather than Hollandic origins, however. Modern Frisian has -e there. The unified plural takes the form -et rather than -t in the Achterhooks dialect of Winterswijk and in the more conservative southern Tweants varieties, which border the Achterhook.
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