Edit Did You Know? Angry Bar Patron Mike Longman Betfair Casino har mngder av spelautomatsspel i sitt instant play casino Det r en vldigt bra mix med en hel del unika spelautomater som inte hittas pa andra. Tiberius secured the overall power of Rome and enriched its treasury.
Im handwerklichen Bereich gibt es eine Reihe von Oberflächen, welche sich mit entsprechenden Werkzeugen herstellen lässt gebeilte Oberfläche, gekrönelte Oberfläche, gespitzte Oberfläche etc. Verwitterung von Granit, sog. Die Europäische Norm EN verlangt dagegen bei der Bezeichnung von Natursteinen den wissenschaftlichen Gesteinsnamen bestimmt mit einer petrografischen Untersuchung nach EN und 4.
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Granite sind fein- bis grobkörnig, meist rosa, grau oder gelblich, richtungsloses Gefüge. Feldspäte und akzessorische Gemengteile sind farbbestimmend. Hauptgemengteile sind Feldspat, Quarz und Glimmer Die Oberfläche von Graniten kann wegen des hohen Quarzgehaltes zur Erhöhung der Rutschsicherheit geflammt werden.
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Our Lady of the Assassins Edit Cast Complete credited cast: Harry Morgan Walter Brennan Marie 'Slim' Browning Dolores Moran Hellene de Bursac Hoagy Carmichael Gerard aka Frenchy Walter Sande Edit Storyline Harry Morgan and his alcoholic sidekick, Eddie, are based on the island of Martinique and crew a boat available for hire. Bogart makes love his kind of woman! Edit Did You Know? Goofs When the wife of the French Resistance leader gets on the boat, there's a full-frontal shot of her while she is talking to Steve.
Her had is flopped over her left eye. But when Steve stops the boat when he hears something in the distance, the hat is flopped over her right eye, obviously to allow a facial shot of her.
Martinique, in the summer of , shortly after the fall of France. Forte de France Steve: Good Morning, Captain Morgan. What can I do for you today? Same thing as yesterday. The period of the "Five Good Emperors" was brought to an end by the reign of Commodus from to Commodus was the son of Marcus Aurelius, making him the first direct successor in a century, breaking the scheme of adoptive successors that had worked so well.
He was co-emperor with his father from When he became sole emperor upon the death of his father in , it was at first seen as a hopeful sign by the people of the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, as generous and magnanimous as his father was, Commodus was just the opposite. However, after an assassination attempt, involving a conspiracy by certain members of his family, Commodus became paranoid and slipped into insanity. One could argue that the assassination attempt began the long decline of the Roman Empire.
When Commodus' behaviour became increasingly erratic throughout the early s, Pertinax is thought to have been implicated in the conspiracy that led to Commodus' assassination on 31 December After the murder had been carried out, Pertinax, who was serving as urban prefect at this time, was hurried to the Praetorian Camp and proclaimed emperor the following morning.
He attempted to emulate the restrained practices of Marcus Aurelius , and made an effort to reform the welfare program for poor children but he faced antagonism from many quarters. He attempted to impose stricter military discipline upon the pampered Praetorians. Pertinax sent Laetus to meet them, but he chose to side with the insurgents instead and deserted the emperor. The Praetorian Guard, lacking discipline and sunk in debauchery and sloth, were incapable of offering any effectual resistance.
Whom have I killed? Lucius Septimius Severus was born to a family of Phoenician equestrian rank in the Roman province of Africa proconsularis. He rose through military service to consular rank under the later Antonines. Proclaimed emperor in by his legionaries in Noricum during the political unrest that followed the death of Commodus , he secured sole rule over the empire in after defeating his last rival, Clodius Albinus , at the Battle of Lugdunum.
In securing his position as emperor, he founded the Severan dynasty. Severus fought a successful war against the Parthians and campaigned with success against barbarian incursions in Roman Britain , rebuilding Hadrian's Wall.
In Rome, his relations with the Senate were poor, but he was popular with the commoners, as with his soldiers, whose salary he raised. Starting in , the influence of his Praetorian prefect Gaius Fulvius Plautianus was a negative influence; the latter was executed in One of Plautianus's successors was the jurist Aemilius Papinianus.
Severus continued official persecution of Christians and Jews , as they were the only two groups who would not assimilate their beliefs to the official syncretistic creed. Severus died while campaigning in Britain. He was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta , who reigned under the influence of their mother, Julia Domna. Upon his father's death, Caracalla was proclaimed co-emperor with his brother Geta. Conflict between the two culminated in the assassination of the latter.
Reigning alone, Caracalla was noted for lavish bribes to the legionaries and unprecedented cruelty, authorizing numerous assassinations of perceived enemies and rivals. He campaigned with indifferent success against the Alamanni. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are the most enduring monument of his rule. His reign was also notable for the Antonine Constitution Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana , also known as the Edict of Caracalla , which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire.
He was assassinated while en route to a campaign against the Parthians by the Praetorian Guard. The younger son of Severus, Geta was made co-emperor with his older brother Caracalla upon his father's death. Unlike the much more successful joint reign of Marcus Aurelius and his brother Lucius Verus in the previous century, relations were hostile between the two Severid brothers from childhood. Geta was assassinated in his mother's apartments by order of Caracalla, who thereafter ruled as sole Augustus.
Opelius Macrinus was born in at Caesarea. Although coming from a humble background that was not dynastically related to the Severan dynasty, he rose through the imperial household until, under the emperor Caracalla , he was made Prefect of the Praetorian Guard. On account of the cruelty and treachery of the emperor, Macrinus became involved in a conspiracy to kill him, and ordered the Praetorian Guard to do so.
On April 8, , Caracalla was assassinated traveling to Carrhae. Three days later, Macrinus was declared Augustus. His most significant early decision was to make peace with the Parthians , but many thought that the terms were degrading to the Romans. However, his downfall was his refusal to award the pay and privileges promised to the eastern troops by Caracalla.
He also kept those forces wintered in Syria , where they became attracted to the young Elagabalus. After months of mild rebellion by the bulk of the army in Syria, Macrinus took his loyal troops to meet the army of Elagabalus near Antioch. Despite a good fight by the Praetorian Guard, his soldiers were defeated.
Macrinus managed to escape to Chalcedon but his authority was lost: Opelius Diadumenianus was the son of Macrinus , born in He was given the title Caesar in , when his father became Emperor. After his father's defeat outside Antioch , he tried to escape east to Parthia , but was captured and killed before he could achieve this.
Aurelius Antonius, he was appointed at an early age to be priest of the sun God, Elagabalus, represented by a large, dark rock called a baetyl, by which name he is known to historians his name is sometimes written "Heliogabalus". He was proclaimed emperor by the troops of Emesa, his hometown, who were instigated to do so by Elagabalus's grandmother, Julia Maesa. She spread a rumor that Elagabalus was the secret son of Caracalla.
This revolt spread to the entire Syrian army which, at the time, was swollen with troops raised by the Emperor Caracalla , and not fully loyal to Macrinus , and eventually they were to win the short struggle that followed by defeating Macrinus at a battle just outside Antioch. Elagabalus was then accepted by the Senate, and he began the slow journey to Rome. His reign in Rome has long been known for outrageousness, although the historical sources are few, and in many cases not to be fully trusted.
He is said to have smothered guests at a banquet by flooding the room with rose petals; married his male lover — who was then referred as the 'Empress's husband'; and married one of the Vestal Virgins.
Some say he was transgender , and one ancient text states that he offered half the empire to the physician who could give him female genitalia. The running of the Empire during this time was mainly left to his grandmother and mother Julia Soamias.
Seeing that her grandson's outrageous behavior could mean the loss of power, Julia Maesa persuaded Elagabalus to accept his cousin Alexander Severus as Caesar and thus the nominal Emperor-to-be. However, Alexander was popular with the troops, who viewed their new Emperor with dislike: Elagabalus and his mother were murdered in a Praetorian Guard camp mutiny.
Born Marcus Julius Gessius Bassianus Alexianus, Alexander was adopted as heir apparent by his slightly older and very unpopular cousin, the Emperor Elagabalus at the urging of the influential and powerful Julia Maesa — who was grandmother of both cousins and who had arranged for the emperor's acclamation by the Third Legion. On March 6, , when Alexander was just fourteen, a rumor went around the city troops that Alexander had been killed, triggering a revolt of the guards that had sworn his safety from Elegabalus and his ascension as emperor.
The eighteen-year-old Emperor Elagabalus and his mother were both taken from the palace, dragged through the streets, murdered and thrown in the river Tiber by the Praetorian Guard, who then proclaimed Alexander Severus as Augustus. Ruling from the age of fourteen under the influence of his able mother, Julia Avita Mamaea , Alexander restored, to some extent, the moderation that characterized the rule of Septimius Severus. The rising strength of the Sasanian Empire — heralded perhaps the greatest external challenge that Rome faced in the 3rd century.
His prosecution of the war against a German invasion of Gaul led to his overthrow by the troops he was leading, whose regard the twenty-seven-year-old had lost during the campaign. The situation of the Roman Empire became dire in AD , when the emperor Alexander Severus was murdered by his own troops. Many Roman legions had been defeated during a campaign against Germanic peoples raiding across the borders, while the emperor was focused primarily on the dangers from the Sassanid Persian Empire.
Leading his troops personally, Alexander Severus resorted to diplomacy and the paying of tribute in an attempt to pacify the Germanic chieftains quickly. According to Herodian this cost him the respect of his troops, who may have felt they should be punishing the tribes who were intruding on Rome's territory.
In the years following the emperor's death, generals of the Roman army fought each other for control of the Empire and neglected their duties in preventing invasions. Provincials became victims of frequent raids by foreign tribes, such as the Carpians , Goths , Vandals , and Alamanni , along the Rhine and Danube Rivers in the western part of the Empire, as well as attacks from Sassanids in the eastern part of the Empire.
Additionally, in , the Plague of Cyprian possibly smallpox broke out, causing large-scale mortality which may have seriously affected the ability of the Empire to defend itself. By , the Roman Empire broke up into three competing states. The Roman provinces of Gaul , Britain and Hispania broke off to form the Gallic Empire and, two years later in , the eastern provinces of Syria , Palestine and Aegyptus became independent as the Palmyrene Empire , leaving the remaining Italian-centered Roman Empire-proper in the middle.
An invasion by a vast host of Goths was beaten back at the Battle of Naissus in This victory was significant as the turning point of the crisis, when a series of tough, energetic soldier-emperors took power. When Claudius died in of the plague, Aurelian , who had commanded the cavalry at Naissus , succeeded him as the emperor and continued the restoration of the Empire.
Aurelian reigned — through the worst of the crisis, defeating the Vandals , the Visigoths , the Palmyrenes , the Persians, and then the remainder of the Gallic Empire. By late , the Roman Empire was reunited into a single entity, and the frontier troops were back in place.
More than a century would pass before Rome again lost military ascendancy over its external enemies. However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially in the Western Empire, had been ruined, their populations dispersed and, with the breakdown of the economic system, could not be rebuilt. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many then surrounded themselves with thick walls. Finally, although Aurelian had played a significant role in restoring the Empire's borders from external threat, more fundamental problems remained.
In particular, the right of succession had never been clearly defined in the Roman Empire, leading to continuous civil wars as competing factions in the military, Senate and other parties put forward their favored candidate for emperor.
Another issue was the sheer size of the Empire, which made it difficult for a single autocratic ruler to effectively manage multiple threats at the same time. These continuing problems would be radically addressed by Diocletian , allowing the Empire to continue to survive in the West for over a century and in the East for over a millennium. As a matter of historical convention, the late Roman Empire emerged from the Roman Principate the early Roman Empire , with the accession of Diocletian in , his reign marking the beginning of the Dominate , or Late Roman Empire.
The transition from a single united empire to the later divided Western and Eastern empires was a gradual transformation. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marked the end of the Crisis of the Third Century.
Diocletian appointed a co-emperor in and delegated further with two junior-emperors. Diocletian secured the empire's borders and purged it of all threats to his power. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between and , the Alamanni in , and usurpers in Egypt between and Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against Sassanid Persia , the empire's traditional enemy.
In he sacked their capital, Ctesiphon. Diocletian led the subsequent negotiations and achieved a lasting and favorable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia , Mediolanum , Antioch , and Trier , closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been.
Building on third-century trends towards absolutism , he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates. Diocletian saw that the vast Roman Empire was ungovernable by a single emperor in the face of internal pressures and military threats on two fronts.
He therefore split the Empire in half along a northwest axis just east of Italy, and created two equal Emperors to rule under the title of Augustus.
Diocletian himself was the Augustus of the eastern half, and he made his long-time friend Maximian Augustus of the western half. On March 1 , authority was further divided. Each Augustus took a junior Emperor called a Caesar to aid him in administrative matters, and to provide a line of succession.
This constituted what is called the Tetrarchy in Greek: After Rome had been plagued by bloody disputes about the supreme authority, this finally formalised a peaceful succession of the emperor: On May 1, , Diocletian and Maximian abdicated in favour of their Caesars.
Galerius named the two new Caesars: The arrangement worked well under Diocletian and Maximian and shortly thereafter. The internal tensions within the Roman government were less acute than they had been. In The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Edward Gibbon notes that this arrangement worked well because of the affinity the four rulers had for each other.
Gibbon says that this arrangement has been compared to a "chorus of music". With the withdrawal of Diocletian and Maximian, this harmony disappeared. After an initial period of tolerance, Diocletian, who was a fervent pagan and was worried about the ever-increasing numbers of Christians in the Empire, persecuted them with zeal unknown since the time of Nero; this was to be one of the greatest persecutions the Christians endured in history.
Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine , sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively.
The Diocletianic Persecution —11 , the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity , did not destroy the empire's Christian community; indeed, after Christianity became the empire's preferred religion under its first Christian emperor, Constantine.
In spite of his failures, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain essentially intact for another hundred years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth.
Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May , and became the first Roman emperor to voluntarily abdicate the position John VI retired to a monastery in the 14th century. He lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast, tending to his vegetable gardens.
His palace eventually became the core of the modern-day city of Split. The Tetrarchy would effectively collapse with the death of Constantius Chlorus on July 25, Constantius's troops in Eboracum immediately proclaimed his son Constantine the Great as Augustus. In August , Galerius promoted Severus to the position of Augustus. A revolt in Rome supported another claimant to the same title: Maxentius , son of Maximian, who was proclaimed Augustus on October 28, His election was supported by the Praetorian Guard.
This left the Empire with five rulers: The year saw the return of Maximian to the rank of Augustus alongside his son Maxentius, creating a total of six rulers of the Empire. Galerius and Severus campaigned against them in Italy. Severus was killed under command of Maxentius on September 16, The two Augusti of Italy also managed to ally themselves with Constantine by having Constantine marry Fausta , the daughter of Maximian and sister of Maxentius.
In Galerius officially put an end to the persecution of Christians, and Constantine legalised Christianity definitively in as evidenced in the so-called Edict of Milan. Constantine defeated his brother-in-law Licinius in , unifying the Empire under his control. He would rule until his death on 22 May The Empire was parted again among his three surviving sons. Constantine II was killed in conflict with his youngest brother in Constans was himself killed in conflict with the army-proclaimed Augustus Magnentius on January 18, Magnentius was at first opposed in the city of Rome by self-proclaimed Augustus Nepotianus , a paternal first cousin of Constans.
Nepotianus was killed alongside his mother Eutropia. His other first cousin Constantia convinced Vetriano to proclaim himself Caesar in opposition to Magnentius. Vetriano served a brief term from March 1 to December 25, He was then forced to abdicate by the legitimate Augustus Constantius.
The usurper Magnentius would continue to rule the Western Roman Empire until while in conflict with Constantius. His eventual defeat and suicide left Constantius as sole Emperor.
Constantius's rule would however be opposed again in He had named his paternal half-cousin and brother-in-law Julian as his Caesar of the Western Roman Empire in During the following five years, Julian had a series of victories against invading Germanic tribes , including the Alamanni.
This allowed him to secure the Rhine frontier. His victorious Gallic troops thus ceased campaigning. Constantius sent orders for the troops to be transferred to the east as reinforcements for his own currently unsuccessful campaign against Shapur II of Persia.
This order led the Gallic troops to an insurrection. They proclaimed their commanding officer Julian to be an Augustus. Both Augusti readied their troops for another Roman Civil War , but the timely demise of Constantius on 3 November prevented this war from occurring.
Julian would serve as the sole Emperor for two years. He had been raised by the Gothic slave Mardonius , a great admirer of ancient Greek philosophy and literature. Julian had received his baptism as a Christian years before, but no longer considered himself one. His reign would see the ending of restrictions and violence against paganism introduced by his uncle and father-in-law Constantine I and his cousins and brothers-in-law Constantine II, Constans and Constantius II.
He instead placed similar restrictions on Christianity , and some unofficial violence against Christians occurred. His edict of toleration in ordered the reopening of pagan temples and the reinstitution of alienated temple properties, and, more problematically for the Christian Church , the recalling of previously exiled Christian bishops.
Returning Orthodox and Arian bishops resumed their conflicts, thus further weakening the Church as a whole. Julian himself was not a traditional pagan.
His personal beliefs were largely influenced by Neoplatonism and Theurgy ; he reputedly believed he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great.
He produced works of philosophy arguing his beliefs. His brief renaissance of paganism would, however, end with his death. Julian eventually resumed the war against Shapur II of Persia. He received a mortal wound in battle and died on June 26, According to Gibbon in The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , upon being mortally wounded by a dart, he was carried back to his camp. He gave a farewell speech, in which he refused to name a successor.
He then proceeded to debate the philosophical nature of the soul with his generals. He then requested water and, shortly after drinking it, died. He was considered a hero by pagan sources of his time and a villain by Christian ones. Gibbon wrote quite favourably about Julian.
Contemporary historians have treated him as a controversial figure. Julian died childless and with no designated successor. The officers of his army elected the rather obscure officer Jovian emperor. He is remembered for signing an unfavourable peace treaty with Persia , ceding territories won from the Persians, dating back to Trajan. He restored the privileges of Christianity.
He is considered a Christian himself, though little is known of his beliefs. Jovian himself died on February 17, The role of choosing a new Augustus fell again to army officers. The army had been left leaderless twice in less than a year, and the officers demanded Valentinian choose a co-ruler.
On March 28 Valentinian chose his own younger brother Valens and the two new Augusti parted the Empire in the pattern established by Diocletian: The election of Valens was soon disputed.