This survey further documents the existence of a nonclinical population of drug users which is generally healthy, well-adjusted, and productive. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination. Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action. Invasive species In many countries, Hemidactylus frenatus is an introduced species that is considered a pest and even a "serious threat species" to local wildlife.
But I was welcomed if one hour was ok with me. It was enough for me. Hakodate is famous for ikasashi, squid sashimi. Monsterously large oysters, live Octopus at the table, seafood and crab hotpot, all done very well. Topped off with Sapporo Classic Beer. All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Log in Join Recently viewed Bookings Inbox.
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One study found its sample of heterosexuals to be more prejudiced against asexuals than to homosexuals or bisexuals. Employment discrimination based on sexual orientation varies by country. Revealing a lesbian sexual orientation by means of mentioning an engagement in a rainbow organisation or by mentioning one's partner name lowers employment opportunities in Cyprus and Greece but overall, it has no negative effect in Sweden and Belgium.
This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal, five carry the death penalty for homosexual activity, and two do in some regions of the country.
Male homosexuality still a taboo". The article stated, among other things that honor killings by Iraqis against a gay family member are common and given some legal protection.
A number of countries, especially those in the Western world , have passed measures to alleviate discrimination against sexual minorities, including laws against anti-gay hate crimes and workplace discrimination.
Some have also legalized same-sex marriage or civil unions in order to grant same-sex couples the same protections and benefits as opposite-sex couples. Drug use discrimination is the unequal treatment people experience because of the drugs they use. Ideas of self-ownership and cognitive liberty affirm rights to use drugs, whether for medicine    recreation ,    or spiritual fulfilment. Constitution and Bill of Rights ,   the European Convention on Human Rights ,   and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ,  as protecting personal drug choices.
They are inspired by and see themselves following in the tradition of those who have struggled against other forms of discrimination in the past. Drug policy reform organizations such as the Drug Policy Alliance ,  the Drug Equality Alliance ,  the Transform Drug Policy Foundation ,  and the Beckley Foundation  have highlighted the issue of stigma and discrimination in drug policy. The Partnership for Drug-Free Kids also recognizes this issue  and shares on its website stories that "break through the stigma and discrimination that people with drug or drinking problems often face.
A report issued by the Global Commission on Drug Policy , critical of the global war on drugs,  states, under "Undermining Human Rights, Fostering Discrimination":.
Punitive approaches to drug policy are severely undermining human rights in every region of the world. They lead to the erosion of civil liberties and fair trial standards, the stigmatization of individuals and groups — particularly women, young people, and ethnic minorities — and the imposition of abusive and inhumane punishments.
Although still illegal at the federal level, about half of U. In the US, a government policy known as affirmative action was instituted to encourage employers and universities to seek out and accept groups such as African Americans and women, who have been subject to discrimination for a long time. Some attempts at antidiscrimination have been criticized as reverse discrimination. In particular, minority quotas for example, affirmative action may discriminate against members of a dominant or majority group or other minority groups.
In its opposition to race preferences, the American Civil Rights Institute's Ward Connerly stated, "There is nothing positive, affirmative, or equal about 'affirmative action' programs that give preference to some groups based on race. Social theories such as egalitarianism assert that social equality should prevail. In some societies, including most developed countries, each individual's civil rights include the right to be free from government sponsored social discrimination.
Discrimination, in labeling theory , takes form as mental categorization of minorities and the use of stereotype. This theory describes difference as deviance from the norm, which results in internal devaluation and social stigma  that may be seen as discrimination.
It is started by describing a "natural" social order. It is distinguished between the fundamental principle of fascism and social democracy. This practice continues with some present day governments. Economist Yanis Varoufakis argues that "discrimination based on utterly arbitrary characteristics evolves quickly and systematically in the experimental laboratory", and that neither classical game theory nor neoclassical economics can explain this.
At the start of each session, each participant was assigned a color at random, either red or blue. At each round, each player learned the color assigned to his or her opponent, but nothing else about the opponent. Hargreaves-Heap and Varoufakis found that the players' behavior within a session frequently developed a discriminatory convention, giving a Nash equilibrium where players of one color the "advantaged" color consistently played the aggressive "hawk" strategy against players of the other, "disadvantaged" color, who played the acquiescent "dove" strategy against the advantaged color.
Players of both colors used a mixed strategy when playing against players assigned the same color as their own. The experimenters then added a cooperation option to the game, and found that disadvantaged players usually cooperated with each other, while advantaged players usually did not.
They state that while the equilibria reached in the original HD game are predicted by evolutionary game theory , game theory does not explain the emergence of cooperation in the disadvantaged group. Citing earlier psychological work of Matthew Rabin , they hypothesize that a norm of differing entitlements emerges across the two groups, and that this norm could define a "fairness" equilibrium within the disadvantaged group.
It is debated as to whether or not markets discourage discrimination brought about by the state. One argument is that since discrimination restricts access to customers and incurs additional expense, market logic will punish discrimination.
Opposition by companies to "Jim Crow" segregation laws is an example of this. It is argued that microeconomic analysis of discrimination uses unusual methods to determine its effects using explicit treatment of production functions and that the very existence of discrimination in employment defined as wages which differ from marginal product of the discriminated employees in the long run contradicts claims that the market will function well and punish discrimination.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the concept in phenomenology, see Other. This article is about the prejudicial treatment. For other uses, see Discrimination disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Racism , Discrimination based on skin color , and Ethnic penalty.
Regional discrimination in China. Religious discrimination Separation of church and state. Misogyny , Misandry , Discrimination against intersex people , Transphobia , and Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons. Heterosexism , Heteronormativity , Biphobia , and Homophobia. LGBT rights by country or territory. Discrimination against drug addicts.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of anti-discrimination acts. Discrimination portal Sociology portal. Canadian Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original on Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 14 January A Prioritarian, Desert-Accommodating Account".
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Death in Slasher Films: Evidence of prejudice, dehumanization, avoidance, and discrimination against asexuals". Group Processes Intergroup Relations. International Journal of Manpower. Archived at the Wayback Machine. Getting hired for not having kids?
South Africa ignores 'corrective' attacks". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. In addition to the burdens of stigmatization, those who use illicit drugs experience discrimination. The US department of homeland security told the Mail that foreigners who had admitted drug taking were deemed "inadmissible". Most drug users are happy, successful people with a taste for the good life". This survey further documents the existence of a nonclinical population of drug users which is generally healthy, well-adjusted, and productive.
A New York Times article proclaimed: Myths about the "superhuman strength, cunning and efficiency" of the Negro on cocaine flourished in the South. Such myths included ideas such as cocaine induced Black men to rape White women, cocaine improved Black marksmanship, and cocaine made Blacks impervious to.
One of the starkest disparities emerged in the prosecution of misdemeanor drug crimes like possession of marijuana or cocaine. The study found blacks were 27 percent more likely than whites to receive jail or prison time for misdemeanor drug offenses, while Hispanic defendants were 18 percent more likely to be incarcerated for those crimes.
News and World Report. Sentencing Commission figures, no class of drug is as racially skewed as crack in terms of numbers of offenses. According to the commission, 79 percent of 5, sentenced crack offenders in were black, versus 10 percent who were white and 10 percent who were Hispanic. Smokers have been turned away from jobs in the past — prompting more than half the states to pass laws rejecting bans on smokers — but the recent growth in the number of companies adopting no-smoker rules has been driven by a surge of interest among health care providers, according to academics, human resources experts and tobacco opponents.
Where Do the Smoker's Rights End?