Erik Haselhofer

The INDEXC function searches source, from left to right, for the first occurrence of any character present in the excerpts and returns the position in source of that.

Returns the accumulated declining balance with conversion to a straight-line depreciation. Returns the count of the number of interval boundaries between two dates, two times, or two datetime values.

Rusija upozorava Ameriku: Ovo je direktan put ka krvoproliću

Paper An Introduction to SAS® Character Functions Ronald Cody, Ed.D. Introduction SAS® software is especially rich in its assortment of functions that deal with character data.

There is no longer a need to implement this functionality yourself. Suppose that the number of columns in a matrix is p. You can test the module by using it to construct a tridiagonal matrix that contains 2s on the diagonal and 1s on the sub- and superdiagonals.

It then computes the subscripts of the superdiagonal which, for this example, are 1,2 , 2,3 , and 3,4 and the subdiagonal which are 2,1 , 3,2 , and 4,3. The sub2ind module converts these subscripts to indices, and the value 1 is assigned to all of the corresponding elements of the matrix.

It is not common to need to convert indices to subscripts. The main advantage of subscripts is to the programmer: For example, if you have a huge sparse matrix, you can use the LOC function to find the indices of all nonzero elements, and then convert those indices to subscripts so that you can examine the structure of the nonzero elements.

It uses modular arithmetic to convert an index to a column and row number. You can use the module to display the rows and columns of elements that satisfy a certain condition. For example, the following statements locate all of the even numbers in a matrix:. Computes the number of permutations of n items that are taken r at a time. Resolves the argument, and issues the resolved value for execution at the next step boundary.

Assigns a value to a macro variable, and removes both leading and trailing blanks. Returns the resolved value of the argument after it has been processed by the macro facility. Searches for a character value that is equal to the first argument, and returns the index of the first matching value.

Searches for a numeric value that is equal to the first argument, and returns the index of the first matching value. Returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to the argument, fuzzed to avoid unexpected floating-point results.

Returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to the argument, using zero fuzzing. Returns the largest integer that is less than or equal to the argument, fuzzed to avoid unexpected floating-point results. Returns the largest integer that is less than or equal to the argument, using zero fuzzing. Returns the nearest integer if the argument is within 1E of that integer.

Returns the integer value, fuzzed to avoid unexpected floating-point results. Rounds the first argument to the nearest multiple of the second argument, or to the nearest integer when the second argument is omitted. Rounds the first argument to the nearest multiple of the second argument, and returns an even multiple when the first argument is halfway between the two nearest multiples.

Rounds the first argument to the nearest multiple of the second argument, using zero fuzzing. Returns the result of a division that handles special missing values for ODS output. Returns a numeric value based on whether an expression is true, false, or missing. Encodes characters using HTML character entity references, and returns the encoded string. Returns the number of information items that are available for a directory. Verifies the existence of an external file that is associated with a fileref.

Assigns or deassigns a fileref to an external file, directory, or output device. Verifies whether a fileref has been assigned for the current SAS session. Returns the number of information items that are available for an external file. Returns the size of the last record that was read, or, if the file is opened for output, returns the current record size. Opens a file by directory ID and member name, and returns either the file identifier or a 0.

Returns the physical name of an external file or a SAS library, or returns a blank. Returns error or warning message text from processing the last data set or external file function. Calculates call prices for European options on futures, based on the Black model.

Calculates put prices for European options on futures, based on the Black model. Calculates call prices for European options on stocks, based on the Black-Scholes model. Calculates put prices for European options on stocks, based on the Black-Scholes model. Returns the convexity for a periodic cash flow stream, such as a bond. Returns the accumulated declining balance with conversion to a straight-line depreciation. Returns the declining balance with conversion to a straight-line depreciation.

Returns the modified duration for a periodic cash flow stream, such as a bond. Computes financial calculations such as depreciation, maturation, accrued interest, net present value, periodic savings, and internal rates of return. Calculates call prices for European options on stocks, based on the Garman-Kohlhagen model. Calculates put prices for European options on stocks, based on the Garman-Kohlhagen model. Calculates call prices for European options on stocks, based on the Margrabe model.

Calculates put prices for European options on stocks, based on the Margrabe model. Returns the net present value with the rate expressed as a percentage. Returns the present value for a periodic cash flow stream such as a bond , with repayment of principal at maturity. Returns the yield-to-maturity for a periodic cash flow stream, such as a bond. Specifies a seed value to use for subsequent random number generation by the RAND function.

Returns the SAS data set name that is associated with a data set identifier. Returns the memory address of a variable on bit and bit platforms. For a specified period of time, suspends the execution of a program that invokes this CALL routine. Returns the value that is produced when SAS converts an expression using the specified informat.

Stores the contents of a memory address in a numeric variable on a bit platform. Stores the contents of a memory address in a character variable on a bit platform. Stores the contents of a memory address in a character variable on bit and bit platforms.

Stores the contents of a memory address in a numeric variable on bit and bit platforms. Returns the pointer address as a character variable on bit and bit platforms.

For a specified period of time, suspends the execution of a program that invokes this function. Returns the process name that is associated with a given process ID, or returns the name of the current process. Issues an operating environment command during a SAS session, and returns the system return code. Returns the name, type, and length of a variable that is used in a DATA step. Returns a value that indicates whether the specified name is an array. Returns a value that indicates whether the value of the specified argument is an array.

Returns the decimal value of the format that is associated with the specified variable. Returns the decimal value of the format that is associated with the value of the specified argument. Returns the format name that is associated with the specified variable. Returns the format name that is associated with the value of the specified argument.

Returns the format width that is associated with the specified variable. Returns the format width that is associated with the value of the specified argument. Returns the format that is associated with the value of the specified argument.

Returns a value that indicates whether the specified variable is a member of an array. Returns a value that indicates whether the value of the specified argument is a member of an array. Returns the decimal value of the informat that is associated with the specified variable. Returns the decimal value of the informat that is associated with the value of the specified variable.

Returns the informat name that is associated with the specified variable. Returns the informat name that is associated with the value of the specified argument.

Returns the informat width that is associated with the specified variable. Returns the informat width that is associated with the value of the specified argument. Returns the informat that is associated with the value of the specified argument.

Returns the label that is associated with the value of the specified argument. Returns the compile-time allocated size for the variable that has a name that is the same as the value of the argument.

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